Set in a Special Area of Conservation, Tintern Abbey evokes the landscape and connections to a time past in a unique way. The trip to Tintern is a journey, and the prize at the end of negotiating the roads of the Hook Peninsula is the first, teasing glimpse of the abbey that entices you down the driveway. As you follow the meandering drive the natural landscape is laid out below you, while the eighteenth century organised planting gives you a peep at the medieval abbey turned into a fortified dwelling.
The abbey was founded by William Marshal, known to history as The Greatest Knight in Christendom, in answer to a vow made in time of tempest. Marshal and his retinue were coming towards the end of their journey to Ireland when they were caught in a violent storm. William called to his creator asking for safe delivery and vowing that, if he and his companions were saved, he would build a monastery at the location where they made dry land. The weary travellers landed at Bannow Bay and William Marshal fulfilled his vow through the foundation of Tintern Abbey, known as Tintern de Voto, or Tintern of the Vow. The abbey was founded in 1200 and was initially populated by Cistercian monks from Tintern Abbey in Wales.
The monks of the Cistercian Order, founded in France in 1098, had gained a reputation across Europe as austere, hardworking and resourceful. Self-sufficiency as far as possible coupled with a long term view allowed the monks to strive for perfection in their construction and their agricultural endeavours. The Cistercians followed the three-year crop rotation system, introduced new animal breeds and were arguably the first to introduce gothic architecture to Ireland. The monks regularly diverted rivers to provide water for use in the abbey and for sanitation and pushed the known boundaries of engineering practices. The hallmark of Cistercian church building is a simplicity that is a thing of beauty in its own right.
All Cistercian monasteries were dedicated to St Mary and a Lady Chapel was often incorporated into the building. The Lady Chapel at Tintern is a three-bay structure with some beautiful features on the ribbed and groined ceiling. The display on view includes video footage of the earliest conservation works undertaken by the State, at a time when health and safety was not so high on the agenda.
The monastery was suppressed by King Henry VIII in 1536 and the church, cloister and associated buildings along with extensive lands ultimately passed into the hands of Sir Anthony Colclough who turned the monastery into a private dwelling. Anthony was knighted by Queen Elizabeth I in 1581 and following his death was interred in the small church situated near to the battlemented bridge, just a short stroll from the abbey and accessible to visitors today.
Anthony had twelve children, one of whom was Thomas. Sir Thomas continued with the improvements at Tintern, one of which involved the introduction of oysters from Milford Haven to Bannow Bay about the year 1600. Thomas was twice married. His first wife, Martha Loftus was a member of the Reformed Church with whom Thomas had one son named Adam. Thomas’ second wife was Eleanor Bagenal and they had four children together, all of whom were raised as Catholics.
Adam Colclough inherited the estates in 1624 but the lands became divided along religious lines between the Protestant and Catholic branches of the family. The Catholic branch held the lands in an area known as The Duffry, situated in the foothills of the Blackstairs mountains, near to Enniscorthy. During the 1641 rebellion 200 local Protestant people took refuge in Tintern which was garrisoned by forty soldiers from Duncannon Fort situated nearby. Shortly afterwards the Catholic branch of the family laid siege to the Protestant branch who were in residence in Tintern Abbey. Dudley Colclough and his two brothers John and Anthony took control of the abbey following a two-week siege. Following Oliver Cromwell’s arrival in 1649 Dudley was banished to Connaught and he ultimately died in exile in France. The lands were re-united in that same year when Caesar Colclough inherited and he held title until 1684. For almost a century after Caesar’s death the abbey and lands were passed through complicated lines of inheritance as owners died without issue.
The eighteenth century story of Tintern is dominated by the legendary Great Caesar. Renowned as an outstanding sportsman and athlete and a magnanimous landlord beloved by his people Caesar inherited the Duffry lands at sixteen years of age and the Tintern lands followed some years later. One action of Caesar stands in local folklore above all others when he brought a hurling team to play a challenge match at the behest of King George. The Wexford men wore yellow sashes to differentiate the teams and the story goes that the skill displayed by Colclough’s team caused the King or Queen to call out ‘Come on, the yellow bellies!’ a name still applied to natives of the county.
During the period of religious oppression under the Penal laws newly ordained priests were given employment on the Tintern estates where many worked as gardeners and farm hands and quietly carried out their ministry without fear of their landlord. In the eighteenth century the Colcloughs gave a site and a substantial donation towards the erection of the Catholic Church in Ballycullane, the family also established a non-denominational school in the locality. The period of unity and accord was not destined to last.
After the death of Great Caesar the lands were again divided along religious lines. Ultimately Vesey inherited the Tintern lands, however his tenure heralded a turbulent time. Vesey squandered and mortgaged his inheritance while attaining fame for his illicit activities. Vesey’s son John took control after his father’s passing. John had a legal background and tried to turn the fortunes of the estate around. John was involved in the establishment of a bank in nearby New Ross and he launched a flour milling enterprise at Tintern. The flour mill was accidentally burned in the late 1800’s but the walls of the mill still survive. In addition to constructing a limekiln and a brick manufacturing industry John also established a village of Tintern. Home to artisans and craft workers, records indicate the village was home to thirty-six looms and that ‘[l]inen, diaper, check, Jane and woollens, were woven in it’, in addition a yarn market and market house were located in the village. Tintern was also home to slaters, masons, a butcher, a shoemaker and smiths. John had a keen interest in landscaping and gardening and by 1795 had established a nursery to grow seedlings for the extensive plantations he envisaged. It is John we must thank for the tantalising glimpse we get of the abbey from the entrance driveway as he created a wide lawn in front of the abbey surrounded by belts of woodland. This was a key element of the landscaping style of the period. John also levelled ditches and established defined walks around the demesne. In a letter dated to 1801 John referred to a ‘fine parcel of young fruit trees ready to be put against the walls’, another mention of ‘wall trees’ would seem to indicate that the 2.5 acre stone and brick lined walled garden had been constructed by this time.
In addition to the external improvements John’s impact on the old abbey is still plain to see. John transformed the nave into a commodious residence. The Lady Chapel was converted into the family kitchen and the large room above was used as the family library. A massive gothic window was inserted in the west end of the room and in recent years extensive conservation works were carried out on this window by the National Monuments team, based in the Office of Public Works regional depot in Kilkenny. The window was reinstated in 2011 and has become a much admired feature of the present abbey. John Colclough did not fare so well. Killed in a duel in 1806 John was shot dead by his fiancé’s brother; William Alcock. John’s body was waked for a week at the family residence in Wexford town, situated at the present entrance to White’s Hotel. John was buried at Tintern, presumably in the family vault following a funeral said to have been the largest ever seen in that part of Ireland. His fiancé died some years later and her funeral took the form of a torch-lit procession at midnight to the Alcock family mansion. John was one of four members of the Colclough family to have been killed in a duel.
The estate was inherited by another Caesar Colclough. This Caesar returned from political exile in France after the abdication of Napolean in 1814 and became MP for Wexford. In 1812 John Bernard Trotter, a visitor to the estate, wrote that there ‘were some signs of decay in the village’, presumably the decay worsened and looking towards improving the estate, Caesar relocated the old village of Tintern to nearby Saltmills, thus establishing the village that exists today. From about 1818 until his death in 1842 Caesar was an absentee landlord, spending most of his time between England and France. It was strongly suspected that Caesars wife, Jane Kirwan, who had come to dominate his every move, was also responsible for his death. It was believed by many that Jane had poisoned her husband and in doing so ended the male line. The Great Lawsuits ensued bringing financial demands and hardships from which Tintern never recovered. One outcome of the court proceedings was the declaration that, through the male line, the Canadian Mary Colclough was the rightful owner of the estate.
The last of the line, Mary’s granddaughter Lucie Marie, inherited Tintern in 1912 and continued to live in the old abbey but times had changed, the finances had run dry, and by 1959 the vast majority of the land had been sold to the Land Commission. Having lived in the family residence for 70 years the decision was taken to move to nearby Saltmills, the village founded by her ancestor. In 1983 Lucie Marie Biddulph Colclough, known for her quiet compassion, her music and her interest in her Church, died in Ely House, Wexford.
Today the area surrounding Tintern Abbey is a haven for wildlife, an amenity for recreation and a space for quiet contemplation. The woodlands established and bequeathed by the family are managed on behalf of the people of Ireland by Coillte. The restoration of the walled garden is progressing under the management and vision of Hook Tourism. The original layout of the garden has been reinstated as it was in 1838.
About the Author
Breda Lynch is the Supervisor Guide of a number of OPW National Monument sites in the south-east. A published author, Breda was awarded a PhD in history by Maynooth University in 2008 and since then has conducted extensive research and lectured widely on Irish church history, with particular emphasis on the Cistercian Order.
Drumlane Abbey and Round Tower
The church and round tower at Drumlane have been in the care of the Office of Public Works for the past 138 years. The disestablishment of the Church of Ireland in 1869 resulted in the transfer of 139 architecturally important ecclesiastical structures to the ownership of the Commissioners of the Board of Works. These National Monuments included such well-known sites as the Rock of Cashel, Clonmacnoise and Glendalough. Drumlane Abbey and Round Tower were the fourth to be listed in the first register of National Monuments. By the end of 1880, the Board of Works had appointed the well-known architect, Thomas Deane, as Inspector of National Monuments and began conservation work on the churches at Clonmacnoise and Glendalough. Following the political upheavals of 1921, the Board of Works was the only Government Department to remain largely unchanged under Saorstát Éireann (the Irish Free State) and the conservation of National Monuments continued under their remit.
I joined the National Monuments Trim district in 2002 having previously worked in the Mallow district. The District Works Manager of the time, Tom Spears, brought me to see the church at Drumlane which is located on the shore of Garfinny Lough. The gable of the church ruin dominates the round tower and tranquil cemetery. On that first visit, we came to inspect the large eastern gable wall of the church which appeared to be gradually moving away from the two side walls, slipping slowly towards the lake. The presence of a series of large buttresses against the outside of the long side walls indicated a long history of structural instability. In an early image of the church, dating from 1792 in ‘The Antiquities of Ireland, Volume 2’ by Francis Grose, the church has a large steeply pitched roof which must have exerted a tremendous outward thrust on the long side walls. The buttresses were already in position in 1792 to provide additional stability and prevent the roof from causing the side walls to collapse. The outward pressure on the side walls was reduced when the roof perished but the gable wall was then fully exposed to the weather and began to deteriorate. We installed crack monitors and over the following years regularly inspected the gable wall for signs of active movement. In March 2014 Kieran Walsh of the OPW Structural Engineering Section, and I carried out a more detailed inspection from a hoist in order to assess the condition of the large vertical cracks at the junction of the east gable and the two long side walls of the medieval church. The inspection confirmed that the gable wall had moved and was in need of stabilisation works. The project was included in our 2014 business plan and works began in June of the same year.
The first part of the project was the protection of the grave slabs near the east gable, enclosing them in timber covers. We then erected a scaffold around the gable wall to facilitate the works. We were able to examine the masonry work at close quarters and do some preliminary opening up work. The cracks did not extend fully to ground level so there was no indication of a structural problem with the foundations. The cracks widened as they moved further up the wall, confirming that the gable of the church was not strongly bonded to the two long flanking walls and had moved away from them. Without the protection of a roof, walls will develop problems due to the constant movement of water through the structure. The mortar bond between the stones is gradually washed out until there is little structural integrity left in the masonry.
The OPW stonemasons carried out the consolidation works to the gable, working during the summer months when the days were long and the temperatures suitable for lime mortars. We rebuilt large sections of the walls, particularly around the areas that had moved out of position. The rebuilt masonry was strengthened with stainless steel ties to ensure a good joint with the existing walls and the entire gable was repointed. As the works proceeded upwards, a lime based grout was introduced into the walls to ensure that all the internal voids were filled and stable. Finally, the wall tops were flaunched to ensure that the rainwater ran smoothly off the walltops. Works were completed in April 2017 and the enclosing scaffolding cover was left in place for an additional year to assist with the curing of the lime mortars and grout.
We are now confident that the gable wall is stable and the future of this important ecclesiastical assembly is secure. OPW Trim National Monuments staff will continue to monitoring the condition of the buildings and maintain the church and round tower. We will assist the Department of Culture, Heritage and the Gaeltacht in their role of conserving Ireland’s unique heritage for the benefit of present and future generations. The works on site were supervised by Tommy Halton, District Works Manager and carried out by Michael Dempsey, Willie Foley, Eamon Gilsenan, Ger Doherty, Brian Murray, Eamonn Howley, Brendan Hussey, Willie Hussey, Derek Caroll, Thomas Donnelly, Mark Leavy and Ger Brennan.
Ana Dolan worked as a Senior Conservation Architect with the Office of Public Works until her retirement in 2020.